6. References

This page is part of a graduate thesis. Learn more.

Aberdein, A. (2005). The uses of argument in mathematics. Argumentation, 19(3), 287–301. doi:10.1007/s10503–005–4417–8

Albaek, E. (2011). The interaction between experts and journalists in news journalism. Journalism, 12(3), 335–348. doi:10.1177/1464884910392851

Anderson, C. W. (2011a). Between creative and quantified audiences: Web metrics and changing patterns of newswork in local US newsrooms. Journalism, 12(5), 550–566. doi:10.1177/1464884911402451

Anderson, C. W. (2011b, September 9). Information’s triumph? Three ways TechCrunch challenges ideas of journalism. Nieman Journalism Lab. Retrieved from http://www.niemanlab.org/2011/09/informations-triumph-three-ways-techcrunch-challenges-ideas-of-journalism/

Atton, C. (2008). Alternative media theory and journalism practice. In M. Boler (Ed.), Digital media and democracy: Tactics in hard times (pp. 213–227). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Baker, C. E. (1995). Advertising and a Democratic Press. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Balcerak, P. (2011, January 9). Rep. Giffords’ misreported “death”: 2 takeaways [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://paulbalcerak.com/2011/01/09/rep-giffords-misreported-death–2-takeaways/

Ball, W. J. (1994). Using Virgil to analyze public policy arguments: A system based on Toulmin’s informal logic. Social Science Computer Review, 12(1), 26–37. doi:10.1177/089443939401200102

Barnhurst, K. G., & Mutz, D. (1997). American journalism and the decline in event-centered reporting. Journal of Communication, 47(4), 27–53.

Baron, D. P. (2006). Persistent media bias. Journal of Public Economics, 90(1–2), 1–36. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2004.10.006

Barron, J. A. (1966). Access to the press – a new First Amendment right. Harvard Law Review, 80, 1641–1678.

Bates, J. D. (1991). The Pulitzer Prize: The inside story of America’s most prestigious award. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group.

Beckett, C. (2008). Supermedia: Saving journalism so it can save the world. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Benoit, W. L. (1992). Traditional conceptions of argument. In W. L. Benoit, D. Hample, & P. J. Benoit (Eds.), Readings in argumentation (pp. 50–67). New York, NY: Foris Publications.

Benoit, W. L., Hample, D., & Benoit, P. J. (Eds.). (1992). Introduction: Kinds of argument. Readings in argumentation (pp. 69–72). New York, NY: Foris Publications.

Berg, J. (1992). The point of interpreting arguments. Informal Logic, 14(2), 119–122.

Bermejo-Luque, L. (2004). Toulmin’s model of argument and the question of relativism. Informal Logic, 24(2), 169–181.

Black, E. (1965). Rhetorical criticism: A study in method. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Boger, G. (2006). Humanist principles underlying philosophy of argument. Informal Logic, 26(2), 149–174.

Boyd-Barrett, O. (2004). Judith Miller, The New York Times, and the Propaganda Model. Journalism Studies, 5(4), 435–449. doi:10.1080/14616700412331296383

Brockriede, W. (1975). Where is argument? Journal of the American Forensic Association, 11, 179–182.

Brossmann, B. G., & Canary, D. J. (1990). An observational analysis of argument structures: The case of Nightline. Argumentation, 4(2), 199–212. doi:10.1007/BF00175423

Browne, M. N., & Keeley, S. M. (2004). Asking the right questions: A guide to critical thinking (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Burleson, B. R. (1979). On the analysis and criticism of arguments: Some theoretical and methodological considerations. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 15(3), 137–47.

Buss, T. F., & Hofstetter, C. R. (1977). The logic of televised news coverage of political campaign information. Journalism Quarterly, 54(2), 341–349.

Canary, D. J., & Sillars, A. L. (1992). Argument in satisfied and dissatisfied married couples. In W. L. Benoit, D. Hample, & P. J. Benoit (Eds.), Readings in argumentation (pp. 737–764). New York, NY: Foris Publications.

Carr, D. (2010, July 5). For blogger, “outspoken” was a selling point, till it wasn’t. The New York Times, p. B1.

Cederblom, J., & Paulsen, D. (1988). Making reasonable decisions as an amateur in a world of experts. In T. Govier (Ed.), Selected issues in logic and communication (pp. 138–149). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Charity, A. (1995). Doing public journalism. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Cherwitz, R. A., & Darwin, T. J. (1995). On the continuing utility of argument in a postmodern world. Argumentation, 9(1), 181–202.

Chittleborough, P., & Newman, M. E. (1993). Defining the term “argument.” Informal Logic, 15(3), 189–207.

Christians, C. G., Ferre, J. P., & Fackler, P. M. (1993). Good news: Social ethics and the press. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Christians, C. G., Glasser, T., McQuail, D., Nordenstreng, K., & White, R. A. (2009). Normative theories of the media: Journalism in democratic societies. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Cockburn, A. (1982, August). The tedium twins. Harper’s Magazine, 24–27.

Collins, H., & Weinel, M. (2011). Transmuted expertise: How technical non-experts can assess experts and expertise. Argumentation, 25(3), 401–413. doi:10.1007/s10503–011–9217–8

Cooley, J. C. (1959). On Mr. Toulmin’s revolution in logic. The Journal of Philosophy, 56(7), 297–319. doi:10.2307/2021996

Craft, S., & Heim, K. (2008). Transparency in journalism: Meanings, merits, and risks. In L. Wilkins & C. G. Christians (Eds.), The handbook of mass media ethics (pp. 217–228). Taylor & Francis.

Cunningham, F. (2002). Theories of democracy: A critical introduction. New York, NY: Routledge.

Damer, T. E. (2005). Attacking faulty reasoning: A practical guide to fallacy-free arguments (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Desai, N., Pineda, A., Runquist, M., & Fusunyan, M. (2010). Torture at times: Waterboarding in the media. Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy: Harvard University. Retrieved from http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/4420886

Dorman, W. A. (1988). Mass media and international conflict. In T. Govier (Ed.), Selected issues in logic and communication (pp. 65–72). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Eide, M. (2007). Encircling the power of journalism. Nordicom Review, 2, 21–29.

Ennis, R. H. (1982). Identifying implicit assumptions. Synthese, 51(1), 61–86. doi:10.1007/BF00413849

Ettema, J. S., & Glasser, T. L. (1998). Custodians of conscience: Investigative journalism and public virtue. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Fallows, J. (2011, April). Learning to love the (shallow, divisive, unreliable) new media. The Atlantic, 34–49.

Farhi, P. (2011, April 13). NPR’s Andy Carvin, tweeting the Middle East. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/npr-andy-carvin-tweeting-the-middle-east/2011/04/06/AFcSdhSD_story.html

Fengler, S., & Russ-Mohl, S. (2008). Journalists and the information-attention markets: Towards an economic theory of journalism. Journalism, 9(6), 667–690.

Finocchiaro, M. A. (1981). Fallacies and the evaluation of reasoning. American Philosophical Quarterly, 18(1), 13–22.

Finocchiaro, M. A. (1997). The Port-Royal Logic’s theory of argument. Argumentation, 11(4), 393–410.

Foss, S. K. (2004). Rhetorical criticism: Exploration & practice (4th ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Fowler, M. C. (2008). The ethical practice of critical thinking. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press.

Freeman, J. B. (2006). Argument strength, the Toulmin model, and ampliative probability. Informal Logic, 26(1), 25–40.

Friedman, S. M., Villamil, K., Suriano, R. A., & Egolf, B. P. (1996). Alar and apples: newspapers, risk and media responsibility. Public Understanding of Science, 5(1), 1–20. doi:10.1088/0963–6625/5/1/001

Gale, M. E. (1980). Legal writing: The impossible takes a little longer. Albany Law Review, 44, 298–343.

Gans, H. J. (1980). Deciding what’s news: A study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Gans, H. J. (2003). Democracy and the news. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Garber, M. (2011, November 4). Better know a district: ProPublica adds to its music video arsenal with “The Redistricting Song.” Nieman Journalism Lab. Retrieved from http://www.niemanlab.org/2011/11/better-know-a-district-propublica-adds-to-its-music-video-arsenal-with-the-redistricting-song/

Gillmor, D. (2004). We the media: grassroots journalism by the people, for the people. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc.

Glasser, T. L. (1992). Objectivity and news bias. In E. D. Cohen (Ed.), Philosophical issues in journalism (pp. 161–175). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Glasser, T. L., & Ettema, J. S. (1993). When the facts don’t speak for themselves: A study of the use of irony in daily journalism. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 10, 322–338. doi:10.1080/15295039309366874

Govier, T. (1983). Who says there are no fallacies? Informal Logic, 5(1), 2–10.

Govier, T. (1988). Are there two sides to every question? In T. Govier (Ed.), Selected issues in logic and communication (pp. 43–54). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Grady, D. (2011, September 20). Remark on vaccine could ripple for years. The New York Times, p. D1.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1992). From argument to argumentation: Fifteen years of identity crisis. In W. L. Benoit, D. Hample, & P. J. Benoit (Eds.), Readings in argumentation (pp. 17–31). New York, NY: Foris Publications.

Hallin, D. C. (1986). The “uncensored war”: The media and Vietnam. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Hamblin, C. L. (1970). Fallacies. Methuen & Co Ltd.

Hample, D. (1977). The Toulmin model and the syllogism. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 14, 1–9.

Hample, D. (1985). A third perspective on argument. Philosophy & Rhetoric, 18(1), 1–22.

Hanitzsch, T., Hanusch, F., Mellado, C., Anikina, M., Berganza, R., Cangoz, I., Coman, M., et al. (2011). Mapping journalism cultures across nations: A comparative study of 18 countries. Journalism Studies, 12(3), 273–293. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2010.512502

Hansen, K. A. (1990). Information richness and newspaper Pulitzer Prizes. Journalism Quarterly, 67(4), 930–935.

Hardwig, J. (1985). Epistemic dependence. The Journal of Philosophy, 82(7), 335–349.

Haskell, T. L. (1984). Professionalism versus capitalism: R.H. Tawney, Emile Durkheim, and C.S. Peirce on the disinterestedness of professional communities. In T. L. Haskell (Ed.), The authority of experts: Studies in history and theory (pp. 180–225). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Hatcher, J. (2007). Were those the days? Revisiting the Pulitzer-winning efforts of community newspapers in the 1970s. American Journalism, 24(1), 89–118.

Henkemans, A. F. S. (2000). State-of-the-art: The structure of argumentation. Argumentation, 14(4), 447–473.

Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent. New York, NY: Pantheon.

Hibbing, J. R., & Theiss-Morse, E. (2002). Stealth democracy: Americans’ beliefs about how government should work. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Hitchcock, D. (1996). Critical reviews: The rise of informal logic: Essays on argumentation, critical thinking, reasoning and politics. Informal Logic, 18(2–3), 269–283.

Hitchcock, D. (2005). Good reasoning on the Toulmin model. Argumentation, 19(3), 373–391. doi:10.1007/s10503–005–4422-y

Hitchcock, D., & Verheij, B. (2005). The Toulmin model today: Introduction to the special issue on contemporary work using Stephen Edelston Toulmin’s layout of arguments. Argumentation, 19(3), 255–258. doi:10.1007/s10503–005–4414-y

Holt, P. M. (1995). Secret intelligence and public policy: A dilemma of democracy. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Books.

Hornikx, J. (2008). Comparing the actual and expected persuasiveness of evidence types: How good are lay people at selecting persuasive evidence? Argumentation, 22(4), 555–569. doi:10.1007/s10503–007–9067–6

Hyslop, J. H. (1899). Logic and argument. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Inbar, M. (2010, December 20). Groundbreaking DNA sequencing saves boy, 6. TODAY.com. Retrieved from http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/40749681/ns/today-today_health/t/cord-blood-transplant-saves-boy-baffling-ailment/

Ingram, M. (2011a, April 5). Newspapers and social media: Still not really getting it. GigaOM. Retrieved from http://gigaom.com/2011/04/05/newspapers-and-social-media-still-not-really-getting-it/

Ingram, M. (2011b, November 14). Media companies and Twitter — still mostly doing it wrong. GigaOM. Retrieved from http://gigaom.com/2011/11/14/media-companies-and-twitter-still-mostly-doing-it-wrong/

Jason, G. (1987). Are fallacies common? A look at two debates. Informal Logic, 8(2), 81–92.

Jha, S. (2008). Why they wouldn’t cite from sites: A study of journalists’ perceptions of social movement web sites and the impact on their coverage of social protest. Journalism, 9(6), 711–732. doi:10.1177/1464884908096242

Johnson, R. (1988). Poll-ution: Coping with surveys and polls. In T. Govier (Ed.), Selected issues in logic and communication (pp. 163–177). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Johnson, R. H. (2006). Making sense of “informal logic.” Informal Logic, 6(3), 231–258.

Johnstone, Jr., H. W. (1965). Some reflections on argumentation. In M. Natanson & H. W. Johnstone, Jr. (Eds.), Philosophy, rhetoric, and argumentation (pp. 1–9). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

Jones, A. S. (2009). Losing the news: The future of the news that feeds democracy. Oxford University Press.

Kahane, H. (1980). Logic and contemporary rhetoric: The use of reason in everyday life (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Kovach, B., & Rosenstiel, T. (2007). The elements of journalism: What newspeople should know and the public should expect. New York, NY: Random House, Inc.

Kovach, B., & Rosenstiel, T. (2010). Blur: How to know what’s true in the age of information overload. New York, NY: Bloomsbury.

Kruse, J. (2001). Fantasy themes and rhetorical visions in the Brent Spar crisis: A comparative analysis of German and French newspaper coverage. Argumentation, 15(4), 439–456.

Leddy, T. (1986). Is there a fallacy of small sample? Informal Logic, 8(1), 53–56.

Lee, F. L. F., & Lin, A. M. Y. (2006). Newspaper editorial discourse and the politics of self-censorship in Hong Kong. Discourse & Society, 17(3), 331–358. doi:10.1177/0957926506062371

Lester, L. (2010). Big tree, small news: Media access, symbolic power and strategic intervention. Journalism, 11(5), 589–606. doi:10.1177/1464884910373537

Lester, L., & Hutchins, B. (2009). Power games: Environmental protest, news media and the internet. Media, Culture & Society, 31(4), 579–595. doi:10.1177/0163443709335201

Loui, R. P. (2005). A citation-based reflection on Toulmin and argument. Argumentation, 19(3), 259–266. doi:10.1007/s10503–005–4415-x

MacIntosh, J. J. (1988). “Nuclear war” and other euphemisms. In T. Govier (Ed.), Selected issues in logic and communication (pp. 104–110). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Marlin, R. (1984). The rhetoric of action description: Ambiguity in intentional reference. Informal Logic, 6(3), 26–29.

Martin, C. R. (2003). The 1997 United Parcel Service strike: Framing the story for popular consumption. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 27(2), 190–210. doi:10.1177/0196859902250867

Masters, G. (2011, April). Digging deeper. American Journalism Review. Retrieved from http://www.ajr.org/Article.asp?id=5078

May, J. D. (1988). Reportage as compound suggestion. Informal Logic, 10(3), 113–131.

McMurtry, J. (1988). The unspeakable: Understanding the system of fallacy in the media. Informal Logic, 10(3), 133–150.

Merrill, J. C., & Odell, S. J. (1983). Philosophy and journalism. New York, NY: Longman.

Merrill, J. C. (1974). The imperative of freedom. New York, NY: Hastings House Daytrips Publishers.

Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo, 418 U.S. 241 (1974).

Mindich, D. T. Z. (1998). Just the facts: How “objectivity” came to define American journalism. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Morales, L. (2010, September 29). Distrust in U.S. media edges up to record high. Gallup. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/143267/distrust-media-edges-record-high.aspx

Near v. Minnesota , 283 U.S. 697 (1931).

New York Times v. United States , 403 U.S. 713 (1971).

Nielsen, R. K. (2010). Participation through letters to the editor: Circulation, considerations, and genres in the letters institution. Journalism, 11(1), 21–35. doi:10.1177/1464884909350641

Norris, P. (2000). A virtuous circle: Political communications in postindustrial societies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

O’Halloran, K. (2009). Implicit dialogical premises, explanation as argument: A corpus-based reconstruction. Informal Logic, 29(1), 15–53.

O’Keefe, D. J. (1977). Two concepts of argument. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 13(3), 121–128.

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Pellechia, M. G. (1997). Trends in science coverage: A content analysis of three US newspapers. Public Understanding of Science, 6(1), 49–68. doi:10.1088/0963–6625/6/1/004

Perelman, C., & Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. (1965). Act and person in argument. In M. Natanson & H. W. Johnstone, Jr. (Eds.), Philosophy, rhetoric, and argumentation (pp. 102–125). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

Pew Research Center For The People & The Press (2011). Press widely criticized, but trusted more than other information sources. Retrieved from http://people-press.org/2011/09/22/press-widely-criticized-but-trusted-more-than-other-institutions/

Pitts Jr., L. (2010, October 6). Citizen journalists? Spreading like a cold. MiamiHerad.com. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/2010/10/06/1859362/citizen-journalists-spreading.html

Pole, N. (1980). Part/whole fallacies. Informal Logic, 3(3), 11–13.

Pomeroy, R. S. (1983). Ryle on (and for) informal logic. Informal Logic, 5(1), 23–25.

Postman, N. (1988). Critical thinking in the electronic era. In T. Govier (Ed.), Selected issues in logic and communication (pp. 11–19). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Project for Excellence in Journalism (2009). The new Washington press corps. Retrieved from http://journalism.org/analysis_report/new_washington_press_corps

Richards, T. J. (1980). Attitudes to reasoning. Informal Logic, 3(2), 2–7.

Richardson, J. E. (2001). “Now is the time to put an end to all this”: Argumentative discourse theory and “letters to the editor.” Discourse & Society, 12(2), 143–168. doi:10.1177/0957926501012002002

Ripley, M. L. (2008). Argumentation theorists argue that an ad is an argument. Argumentation, 22(4), 507–519. doi:10.1007/s10503–008–9102–2

Rosen, J. (2010, October 21). The 100 percent solution: For innovation in news [Web log post]. Pressthink. Retrieved from http://pressthink.org/2010/10/the–100-percent-solution-for-innovation-in-news/

Rosen, J. (2011, March 24). Re: iPads are not a miracle for children with autism [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/geekdad/2011/03/ipads-are-not-a-miracle-for-autism-geekdad-opinion/#comment–169745032

Rosenfield, H. N. (1949). Experts are never right. The Antioch Review, 9(1), 3–15. doi:10.2307/4609312

Rothbart, D. (1983). Towards a structural analysis of extended arguments. Informal Logic, 5(2), 15–19.

Rowell, E. Z. (1932). Prolegomena to argumentation. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 18(3), 381–405.

Rupar, V. (2006). How did you find that out? Transparency of the newsgathering process and the meaning of news. Journalism Studies, 7(1), 127–143. doi:10.1080/14616700500450426

Rutten, T. (2009, August 22). Setting the price of a free press. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la-oe-rutten22–2009aug22,0,6637557.column

Santo, A. (2011, October 5). Pulitzer winners go behind the scenes of their stories [Web log post]. Behind the News. Retrieved from http://www.cjr.org/behind_the_news/pulitzer_winners_go_behind_the.php

Scanlan, C. (2003, July 9). Footnoting the news: Maintaining reader confidence. Poynter. Retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/how-tos/newsgathering-storytelling/chip-on-your-shoulder/13462/footnoting-the-news-maintaining-reader-confidence/

Schacter, D. L. (1997). Searching for memory: The brain, the mind, and the past. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Schacter, D. L. (2001). The seven sins of memory: How the mind forgets and remembers. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.

Schudson, M. (1982). The politics of narrative form: The emergence of news conventions in print and television. Daedalus, 111(4), 97–112.

Schudson, M. (2003). The sociology of news. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

Scriven, M. (1976). Reasoning. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Scriven, M. (1987). What are we doing? Informal Logic, 9(1), 52.

Shafer, J. (2010, August 17). Bogus trend stories of the week: Child pornography, sextortion, and chinese hymenoplasties. Slate. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/id/2264276/

Shoemaker, P. J. (1993). Critical thinking for mass communications students. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 10(1), 99–111.

Shoemaker, P. J., & Vos, T. P. (2009). Gatekeeping theory. New York, NY: Routledge.

Siegler, M. (2011, September 5). It’s not a mirror, it’s a crystal ball [Web log post]. ParisLemon. Retrieved from http://parislemon.com/post/9859907607/its-not-a-mirror-its-a-crystal-ball

Simosi, M. (2003). Using Toulmin’s framework for the analysis of everyday argumentation: Some methodological considerations. Argumentation, 17(2), 185–202.

Singer, J. B. (2010). Norms and the network: Journalistic ethics in a shared media space. In C. Meyers (Ed.), Journalism ethics: A philosophical approach (pp. 118–129). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Steele, J. E. (1995). Experts and the operational bias of television news: The case of the Persian Gulf War. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 72(4), 799–812.

Stocking, S. H., & Gross, P. H. (1989). How do journalists think?: A proposal for the study of cognitive bias in newsmaking. Bloomington, IN: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Smith Research Center, Indiana University.

Stoff, R. (2008). Fallacies in the media. St. Louis Journalism Review, 16.

Tenore, M. J. (2010, September 21). How Slate’s Jack Shafer calls out bogus trend stories. Poynter. Retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/making-sense-of-news/105778/how-slates-jack-shafer-calls-out-bogus-trend-stories/

Tewksbury, D., & Scheufele, D. (2009). News framing theory and research. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 17–33). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

The Pulitzer Prizes (2011a). The 2011 Pulitzer Prize winners: explanatory reporting. Retrieved from http://www.pulitzer.org/citation/2011-Explanatory-Reporting

The Pulitzer Prizes (2011b). The 2011 Pulitzer Prize winners: investigative reporting. Retrieved from http://www.pulitzer.org/citation/2011-Investigative-Reporting

The Pulitzer Prizes (2011c). The 2011 Pulitzer Prize winners: public service. Retrieved from http://www.pulitzer.org/citation/2011-Public-Service

Thompson, M. (2011, October 24). 6 reasons journalists should “show your work” while learning & creating. Poynter. Retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/how-tos/digital-strategies/150243/6-reasons-journalists-should-show-your-work-while-learning-creating/

Toulmin, S. E. (1958). The uses of argument. London: Cambridge University Press.

Tworzecki, H., & Semetko, H. A. (2010). Media uses and effects in new democracies: The case of Poland’s 2005 parliamentary and presidential elections. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 15(2), 155–174. doi:10.1177/1940161209360698

Ulrich, W. (1992). A response to McMurtry’s system of fallacy in the media. Informal Logic, 14(2–3), 179–188.

van Eemeren, F. H., Grootendorst, R., & Henkemans, F. S. (1996). Fundamentals of argumentation theory: A handbook of historical backgrounds and contemporary developments. Mahwah, N.J.: Routledge.

Verheij, B. (2005). Evaluating arguments based on Toulmin’s scheme. Argumentation, 19(3), 347–371. doi:10.1007/s10503–005–4421-z

Walters, K. S. (Ed.). (1994). Re-thinking reason: New perspectives in critical thinking. State University of New York Press.

Walton, D. (2005). Begging the question in arguments based on testimony. Argumentation, 19(1), 85–113. doi:10.1007/s10503–004–2071–1

Walton, D. N. (1997). Appeal to expert opinion: Arguments from authority. University Park, PA: Penn State Press.

Walton, D., & Macagno, F. (2011). Quotations and presumptions: Dialogical effects of misquotations. Informal Logic, 31(1), 27–55.

Wangerin, P. T. (1993). A multidisciplinary analysis of the structure of persuasive arguments. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 16(1), 195.

Weigel, D. (2011, January 3). How to cover the Tea Party: NYT (wrong) versus WaPo (right) [Web log post]. Slate. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/blogs/blogs/weigel/archive/2011/01/03/how-to-cover-the-tea-party-nyt-wrong-versus-wapo-right.aspx

Wemple, E. (n.d.). Footloose. Washington City Paper. Retrieved from http://www.washingtoncitypaper.com/articles/26066/footloose

Willard, C. A. (1976). On the utility of descriptive diagrams for the analysis and criticism of arguments. Communications Monographs, 43, 308–319.

Willard, C. A. (1990). Authority. Informal Logic, 12(1), 11–22.

Woolbert, C. H. (1917). Conviction and persuasion: Some considerations of theory. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 3(3), 249–267. doi:10.1080/00335631709360614

Yost, M. (1917). Argument from the point-of-view of sociology. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 3(2), 109–124. doi:10.1080/00335631709360590

Advertisements

Leave a comment

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s